«Storm» of soluble differentiation molecules in COVID-19


The review presents data on changes in the content, on the prognostic and monitoring significance of soluble differentiation molecules of immune system cells in COVID-19. Among them are soluble differentiation molecules mediating innate immune responses, soluble differentiation molecules that are activation markers of lymphocytes, soluble markers of endothelial dysfunction, soluble forms of adhesion molecules, soluble differentiation molecules related to immune response checkpoints. At development of COVID-19 in blood of patients the level of the soluble molecules CD14, CD25, CD163, TREM-1, CD177, ST-2, RAGE, ICAM-1, P- and E-seleсtin, 14 soluble control points of the immune response including HLA-G dramatically increases. The level of soluble CD26 molecules, on the contrary, decreases. Changing the level of soluble differentiation molecules has monitoring and prognostic significance. The ideas about the «storm» of soluble differentiation molecules in the severe course of COVID-19 were formulated, complementing the ideas about the «cytokine storm».

Keywords:soluble differentiation molecules; immune system; COVID-19; «cytokine storm»

For citation. Novikov V.V., Karaulov A.V. A «storm» of soluble differentiation molecules in COVID-19. Immunologiya. 2022; 43 (4): 458–67. DOI: https://doi.org/10.33029/0206-4952-2022-43-4-458-467 (in Russian)

Funding. The study had no sponsor support.

Conflict of interests. Authors declare no conflict of interests.

Authors` contribution. Analysis of literature data, writing the article – Novikov V.V.; editing and approval of the final text of the article – Karaulov A.V.


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Musa R. Khaitov

Corresponding member of Russian Academy of Sciences, MD, Professor, Director of the NRC Institute of Immunology FMBA of Russia

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